Clive Ruggles


… is the study of beliefs and practices relating to the sky in the past, especially in prehistory, and the uses to which people's know- ledge of the skies was put.


Professional bodies

Free software tools

Basic declination calculator


by Andrew Smith

See the Tools page for more info


Springer Handbook (2014):


Ocarina Books publishes and distributes books relating to archaeo- and ethnoastronomy



This list of my books and selected papers and articles contains links and downloadable copies where available.

IAU Commission C4: World Heritage and Astronomy

At its 29th General Assembly in Honolulu in 2015, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) created a new Commission (C4) on World Heritage and Astronomy.


The purpose of the Commission is to help ensure that cultural properties and artefacts significant in the development of astronomy are duly studied, protected and maintained, both for the greater benefit of humankind and to the potential benefit of future historical and scientific research. The range of properties and objects in question includes ancient sites and monuments with demonstrable links to the sky (such as Stonehenge), instruments of all ages, archives, historical observatories, technological sites relating to space exploration, working observatories, and dark sky sites.

The Commission is also responsible for fulfilling the IAU’s commitments as a Partner Organisation to UNESCO, and in particular to work together with UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre to implement UNESCO’s Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative.

The Commission has set up the following Working Groups:

  • C.C4.WG1  Windows to the Universe: High-mountain Observatories and other Astronomical Sites of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries (Joint with Commission B7 [Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites])
  • C.C4.WG2  Classical Observatories from the Renaissance to the 20th Century
  • C.C4.WG3 Heritage of Space Exploration
  • C.C4.WG4 Astronomical Heritage in Danger
  • C.C4.WG5 Intangible Heritage (Joint with Commission C1 [Astronomy Education and Development])
  • C.C4.WG6 Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (Joint with Commission C3 [History of Astronomy])



Commission website

Return to the heritage page

Return to the home page

Astronomical heritage

Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy

Read more on the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy and about astronomical heritage in general

Free downloads

ICOMOS–IAU Thematic Studies on Astronomical Heritage

No. 1 (2010): See here for more information or click here to download a copy directly (46 Mb)

No. 2 (2017): See here for more information or click here to download a copy (19 Mb)


Astronomical World Heritage


Download a copy of an article published in A&G (Aug 2019 issue)

Stonehenge and Ancient Astronomy


Download a copy of the Royal Astronomical Society’s factsheet

Alice Ruggles Trust

If you are looking for things related to Alice and/or information about stalking, please visit the Alice Ruggles Trust website