Clive Ruggles


… is the study of beliefs and practices relating to the sky in the past, especially in prehistory, and the uses to which people's know- ledge of the skies was put.


Professional bodies

Free software tools

Basic declination calculator


by Andrew Smith

See the Tools page for more info


Springer Handbook (2014):


Ocarina Books publishes and distributes books relating to archaeo- and ethnoastronomy



This list of my books and selected papers and articles contains links and downloadable copies where available.

Proceedings of IAU Focus Meeting on Astronomical Heritage


The Proceedings of the Focus Meeting (FM2) on Astronomical Heritage: Progressing the UNESCO–IAU Initiative, held at the 29th IAU General Assembly in Honolulu in August 2015, have been published by Cambridge University Press in their Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union series.


For further information about the meeting see the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.



Proceedings volume: Piero Benvenuti (ed.), Astronomy in Focus: As presented at the IAU XXIX General Assembly, 2015 (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union XXIXA), Cambridge University Press (2016).

The following papers from FM2 are included:


Introduction and overview

  • Focus Meeting 2, ‘Astronomical heritage: progressing the UNESCO–IAU initiative’ by Clive Ruggles and Anna Sidorenko, pp. 79–82

Session 1: The implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: achievements, issues and prospects

  • The UNESCO Thematic Initiative “Astronomy and World Heritage”, by Anna Sidorenko, pp. 83–88
  • The IAU’s involvement in the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: achievements and challenges, by Clive Ruggles, pp. 89–92
  • What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy, by Michel Cotte, pp. 93–96

Session 2: The potential for archaeoastronomical World Heritage sites

  • Establishing the credibility of archaeostronomical sites, by Clive Ruggles, pp. 97–99
  • Astronomy, Illumination and Heritage: the Arles-Fontvieille megalithic monuments and their implications for archaeoastronomy and world heritage, by Morgan Saletta, pp. 100–101
  • Serial nominations for the AWH initiative: the paradigm of seven-stone antas and beyond, by Juan Belmonte, César González-García and Michael Hoskin, pp. 102–104

Session 3: Recognizing the Twentieth-Century Heritage of Astronomy

  • As international as they would let us be, by Virginia Trimble, p. 105
  • Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory, by Christina Barboza, pp. 106–108
  • Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th-century astrophysics and technology, by James E. Hesser, David Bohlender and Dennis Crabtree, pp. 109–111
  • The Development of Mauna Kea as an Astronomical Site: conversations with John Jefferies, forum moderated by David Devorkin and Teasel Muir Harmony, pp. 112–113

Session 4: World Heritage and the Protection of Working Observatory Sites (A joint session with FM21: “Mitigating Threats of Light Pollution & Radio Frequency Interference”)

  • The AURA Observatory in Chile—part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study, by Malcolm Smith, Chris Smith and Pedro Sanhueza, p. 114
  • Site protection efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile, by Chris Smith, Pedro Sanhueza and Malcolm Smith, pp. 115–117
  • Protection of SAAO observing site against light and dust pollution, by Ramotholo Sefako and Petri Räisänen, pp. 118–120
  • How can UNESCO World Heritage criteria be applied to the “Windows to the Universe” sites?, by Michel Cotte, pp. 121–123

Session 5: Observatories, Observations and Archives: Scientific, Historical and Heritage Issues

  • “Route of astronomical observatories” project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics, by Gudrun Wolfschmidt, pp. 124–128
  • Are historical observations "ancient" or "modern"?, by Elizabeth Griffin, p. 129
  • BAO plate archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage, by Areg Mickaelian et al., pp. 130–133
  • Odyssey of human creative genius: from astronomy heritage to space technology heritage, by Olga Dluzhnevskaya and Mikhail Marov, pp. 134–139

Session 6: Preserving Dark Skies and Protecting Against Light Pollution in a World Heritage Framework (A joint session with FM21: “Mitigating Threats of Light Pollution & Radio Frequency Interference”)

  • Session report by Clive Ruggles, pp. 463–472, including:
  • Chile: an experience of government policy for the protection of “dark skies”, by Gabriel Rodríguez, pp. 464–467
  • Highlights of the new Emission Norm for the Regulation of Light Pollution in Northern Chile, by Pedro Sanhueza, pp. 467–468
  • Protection of Hawaii’s observatories from light pollution and radio interference, by Richard Wainscoat, pp. 468–469
  • A tale of two regions: site protection experience and updated regulations in Arizona and the Canary Islands, by Richard Green et al., pp. 469–470
  • Toward a serial international approach of the High Mountain Observatories, within important dark-sky value, by Rémi Cabanac and Michel Cotte, pp. 471–472

Session 7: Hawaiian and Polynesian Cultural Heritage Relating to Astronomy

  • Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Pacific Star Names, by Clive Ruggles, Rubellite Kawena Johnson and John Kaipo Mahelona, pp. 140–141

Session 8: Dealing with Movable and Intangible Heritage in a World Heritage Framework

  • Astronomical heritage and Aboriginal people: conflicts and possibilities, by Alejandro López, pp. 142–145
  • Gufa, a unique cultural ritual—a tale of forbidden sun and a girl, by Pritisha Shrestha, pp. 146–147
  • Astronomical knowledge from holy books, by Sona Farmanyan, Vardan Devrikyan and Areg Mickaelian, pp. 148–149
  • Astronomy in the City for astronomy education, by Rosa M. Ros and Beatriz García, pp. 150–153

For a full list of papers presented at the meeting and downloadable PPTs of some of them, see the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.


Return to the heritage page

Return to the home page

Astronomical heritage

Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy

Read more on the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy and about astronomical heritage in general

Free downloads

ICOMOS–IAU Thematic Studies on Astronomical Heritage

No. 1 (2010): See here for more information or click here to download a copy directly (46 Mb)

No. 2 (2017): See here for more information or click here to download a copy (19 Mb)


Astronomical World Heritage


Download a copy of an article published in A&G (Aug 2019 issue)

Stonehenge and Ancient Astronomy


Download a copy of the Royal Astronomical Society’s factsheet

Alice Ruggles Trust

If you are looking for things related to Alice and/or information about stalking, please visit the Alice Ruggles Trust website