Clive Ruggles


… is the study of beliefs and practices relating to the sky in the past, especially in prehistory, and the uses to which people's know- ledge of the skies was put.


Professional bodies

Free software tools

Basic declination calculator


by Andrew Smith

See the Tools page for more info


Springer Handbook (2014):


Ocarina Books publishes and distributes books relating to archaeo- and ethnoastronomy



This list of my books and selected papers and articles contains links and downloadable copies where available.

Astronomical heritage

A new IUCN report on preserving dark skies

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), through its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), issues a series of Technical Reports that provide tools, specific guidance, and overviews on issues related to protected and conserved areas.

A new report is about to be published that focuses on preserving natural darkness for heritage conservation and night sky appreciation. The IUCN has long recognised the importance of natural darkness to nature conservation, to ecological integrity of protected areas, and to the sustainability of healthy lives in healthy cities.

Entitled “The World at Night”, the new report has been produced by WCPA’s Dark Skies Advisory Group, set up in 2009 to provide advice and guidance in regard to light pollution and dark sky values.

Chankillo is inscribed on the World Heritage List

The prehistoric solar observatory and ceremonial centre at Chankillo in Peru, including its famous thirteen towers, was inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List at the 44th session of the World Heritage Committee held in July 2021.

Chankillo’s extraordinary and quite unique monumental solar calendrical device has been recognised as World Heritage just 14 years after Ivan Ghezzi’s and my article “Chankillo: A 2300-Year-Old Solar Observatory in Coastal Peru” was first published in Science (315 (2007), 1239–1243).

According to UNESCO, Chankillo solar observatory is “an outstanding example of ancient landscape timekeeping, a practice of ancient civilizations worldwide, which used visible natural or cultural features. Incorporated in the Thirteen Towers, it permitted the time of year to be accurately determined not just on one date but throughout the seasonal year. Unlike architectural alignments upon a single astronomical target found at many ancient sites around the world, the line of towers spans the entire annual solar rising and setting arcs as viewed, respectively, from two distinct observing points, one of which is still clearly visible above ground. The astronomical facilities at Chankillo represent a masterpiece of human creative genius.”

Astronomical heritage

Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy

Read more on the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy and about astronomical heritage in general

Free downloads

ICOMOS–IAU Thematic Studies on Astronomical Heritage

No. 1 (2010): See here for more information or click here to download a copy directly (46 Mb)

No. 2 (2017): See here for more information or click here to download a copy (19 Mb)


Astronomical World Heritage


Download a copy of an article published in A&G (Aug 2019 issue)

Stonehenge and Ancient Astronomy


Download a copy of the Royal Astronomical Society’s factsheet

Alice Ruggles Trust

If you are looking for things related to Alice and/or information about stalking, please visit the Alice Ruggles Trust website